HOWTO: Order a T1

Many administrators out there have networks whose connection to the internet is broadband based. Whether it be cable, DSL, FiOS, or something else, your sole connectivity relies on this service.

For many small locations, this is sufficient. Lots of small offices don’t need the reliability of dedicated circuits, but others can’t survive without it.

If you’re responsible for a network that should depend on the increased reliability of a T1 (or multiple T1s), it’s your responsibility to figure out how to get that taken care of. That’s where I can give you some pointers.

Over the course of my current position, I’ve ordered, as near as I can tell, around 6 or so T1 circuits (or DS-1 circuits, as they’re sometimes called). Every one is a little bit different, but similar enough that with some pointers, you can feel confident ordering them as well.

A primer on T1s

You’re probably familiar with normal broadband services such as cable and DSL. They sell both business and home accounts, but they’re both the same idea, and they’re both “best effort”. What that means is, you’re not guaranteed any amount of bandwidth at any particular time. The speed quotes you get from the advertising are theoretical maximums, and are dependant on the prevailing traffic of your section of the provider’s network. There are also no Service Level Agreements (SLA’s), which promise you a certain percentage of 9’s (as in 99.999% availability). In terms of cost, broadband typically costs somewhere between $40 and $120 dollars, depending on the level of speed, and the services the provider lets you run on your connection.

Contrast that with a T1. A T1 is a dedicated circuit between you and the telephone company. It runs at 1.544Mb/s both ways, always. Provided there are no malfunctions with the equipment, you are guaranteed 1½ Mb/s constantly. In addition, you get an SLA guaranteeing that your service will be available a certain percentage of the time. The cost of this type of reliability is much higher than broadband, usually totaling between $450 and $800, depending on your location. A T1 is completely unfiltered, allowing you to run any service that you want on your connection.

Step 1: Looking for a carrier

When it comes to buying a T1 circuit, you’ll end up getting the physical circuit from the local telephone company, and possibly the digital signal from another carrier. Neither of those companies may end up being the one you pay for the service. Here’s why.

Reselling T1 service is a big business. Big enough that there are even companies dedicated to finding you providers, and aggregating price quotes from them to help you compare and contrast their services.

The actual phone lines are owned by the Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC), and by antimonopoly laws are required to provide access to Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs). In the case of my New Jersey lines, Verizon is my ILEC, and my service is provided by AT&T (the CLEC). In Ohio, my ILEC is Windstream, and my provider is Qwest.

To make matters more interesting, or difficult, lots of large Tier 1 providers resell their T1 services to smaller companies who buy them in bulk. Since the services bought in bulk are cheaper, the savings can be passed along to the purchasing companies (that’s you).

This knowledge comes as a double-edged sword, however. The service provided by these resellers may be cheaper, but customer service can definitely take a hit. If you buy from a reseller, you may end up with a Tier 1 provider’s line, but unable to contact the Tier 1 provider for support, since you’re really the customer of the reseller. I’ve been in this situation, and it’s very frustrating. I don’t recommend using a reseller unless it’s the only way you can afford the circuit.

Step 2: Comparing the offerings

Assuming you’ve either gotten several quotes yourself or used a quote aggregator, you’re looking at a lot of dissimilar offerings. Here are tips on making sense of them.

First, make sure you’re comparing apples and apples. You’ll be getting quotes for “managed” and “unmanaged” services. The only difference is that with a managed service, the provider (or someone contracted by them) provides and manages the router which is used to connect to the T1. Go with an unmanaged service and you’ll be expected to provide (and troubleshoot) the endpoint equipment.

If you’re familiar with routers, this is probably the best option for you. An older Cisco 2611 router can be purchased used for the price of 2 months of “managed” service. If you’re not familiar, managed might be worth the money.

Make sure you compare contract terms evenly as well. The usual minimum term limit is 2 years, and most places will give you a discount if you sign for three. If you decide to save the additional money, make sure you know under what terms the contract can be prematurely terminated. We once cancelled a contract in the middle of a 3 year term because they decided to raise circuit rates on us.

You’re also going to be seeing people quoting full price, as well as the broken down pricing of “loops” and “port” charges. It sounds complex, but it’s pretty simple.
Since the T1 is a dedicated circuit, it needs a dedicated port. The ILEC, who owns the lines, as well as the machines the lines plug into, charges a per port fee. It’s usually $150-$300, though I suppose in some places, it could be a little more or less.

The loop charge is the cost of running the digital circuit from the telephone office (telco) to the site. This fee varies based on distance from the office. I’ve seen it from next to nothing ($100 on the same floor of a co-location) to $600 (or more). If you’re remote, then this is the part that’s going to cost you.

If you absolutely need the service, but the price is a little steep for you, the option exists to get a “fractional T1”. In my opinion, it’s really not worth it, as the minority of the cost is the bandwidth. You’ll still be paying full price for the port, and the majority of the loop.

Step 3: Ordering the T1

Actually getting the circuit ordered is pretty simple, once you’ve got a provider picked out. In most cases, all you need to do is tell them you want it, and sign the contract. If you have need of a lot of externally facing IPs (probably more than are in a /28 subnet), you’ll probably have to fill out an IP justification form, that the provider will accept and deliver to ARIN.

The provider may also ask you where you want the line terminated. The options are usually leaving the connection in the Main Distribution Facility (MDF) on the ground floor, where all the lines come in, or whether you want the line installed to the Intermediate Distribution Facility (IDF), which is usually the telephone closet on your floor. You can also have them run the line to where your equipment is, in your server room. For lots of people, these three rooms are the same place.

It takes time to get a T1 installed, as well. Depending on the level of cooperation between your provider and the ILEC, I’ve seen as quickly as 5 weeks and as long as 3 months, with the shorter side (around 6 weeks) to be average.

Step 4: Getting the T1 installed

Getting to the point where you can use the T1 takes a couple of steps. Your provider should be in touch with you after a couple of weeks to let you know when your FOC date is. This is the day that the line will be physically installed on premesis. It’s necessary that the ILEC’s worker has access to both the MDF on the ground floor of the building, as well as the place you told them you wanted the line installed.

After the technician comes and physically installs and tests that the line is terminated correctly, you will get notice from your provider that you can schedule your “Test and Turnup” date, and you will be given the contact to arrange this with. The “test and turnup” actually activates the “signal” going to your T1.

Step 5: Test and turnup

At this step, you will need the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) on-site and ready to plug into the T1. The CPE is really just the router that talks to the internet. If you haven’t received the information already, request your IP details from your provider, and they’ll give you the information on how to configure the router.

Chances are that you’ll have a /30 network (/30 allows two usable IPs. One will be the provider endpoint, the other will be your router), and another network, probably /28 (depending on how many IP addresses you requested).

The router that I use most frequently to connect to my T1s is a simple Cisco 2600 series. In addition to the 2600, you need a T1 CSU/DSU Wan Interface Card (WIC), that just slides in the back of the router. Any Cisco refurb dealer should be able to get you these pretty cheaply. In fact, the T1 WIC will probably cost more than the router. I’d expect a few hundred total, but shop around. Prices fluctuate constantly.

If you feel uncomfortable configuring your router for a T1, you can look online for instructions, but there are several “right” ways to do it, depending on how your provider is configured. Get in touch with your contact at the provider and ask them to talk to an engineer. Every provider I’ve ever dealt with was more than happy to help, and had very knowledgable people who could give you advice.

On the test and turnup day, make sure your router is configured, and that you’ve got a couple of extra regular Cat5 cables. It’s also good to make sure that you can access the console of your router, because if something isn’t acting right, you’ll be able to help debug it on your end.


After reading this, hopefully you’re more familiar with the process of ordering and installing a T1. Getting one installed isn’t nearly as imposing after you’ve done it before, but there’s no reason it has to be hard the first time. It’s just another process that most people have never dealt with, and hopefully now you’re more comfortable and know what to expect.

If you have any questions or comments (or if I’ve made any mistakes or forgotten anything), please reply and let me know. Thanks for your time!

  • Richard Hurt

    Nice article, but what’s the next step? What happens when one T1 is not enough? Do you get multiple T1 lines or go straight for a T3?

  • Kenny

    I’m assuming that writing of this article means that the router you shipped last week made it to New Jersey on time and in one piece.

    You should look up the tracking to see if I was right about it. :)

  • Michael Janke

    One thing I ran into is whether or not the carrier maintains the house wiring (MDF->IDF->server room). If you pay the carrier to maintain the house wiring, they’ll troubleshoot bit & CRC errors all the way up to your CSU. If not, they test up to the NIU in the MDF & leave the rest to you. That can be a headache.

    I’ve had to put BERT’s in line to prove to the carrier that the bad bit were their problem. That was a long night.

  • Michael Janke

    @richard –

    Multiple T1’s, with multilink PPP encapsulation. They look like a single circuit at layer 3. You can multilink a bunch of T1’s together. (Not sure how many).

    After a couple T1’s though, carriers might be able to provide metro-ethernet services at 10Mbps or so. In that case, you get a copper ethernet hand off that you plug into your router. No CSU needed. In our case, metro-ethernet at 10Mbps is price competitive with about 3 T1’s.

    The progression we generally use is:

    ->10Mbps ME

    The DS3 and OC3’s are generally not competitively priced with 10 & 100Mbps Metro Ethernet, so our current model is to prefer metro ethernet. (Besides – a DS3 or OC3 card for a router costs far more that an ethernet port.)

    One issue with ethernet services that we’ve run into is MTU sizes. If the carrier doesn’t do mini jumbo frames, you can’t stuff your own VLAN tags on the WAN side of the router. In some cases you also need them to support 802.1q tags.

  • Matt


    Excellent advice. When I multilinked our downtown NYC T1s, Level3 told me that it was limited only by the interfaces on the router, but you’re right, there’s a certain point where the law of diminishing returns kicks in and something better is needed.

    The only issue with metro ethernet is availability. Verizon would laugh at me if I asked them for ethernet where our corporate office is. I’m paying so much for the loop on the T1 that it’s more expensive than my middle-of-nowhere Ohio line. Our DSL at the site is only capable of 1.5Mb because of the distance from the telco.

    In my case there, I’m 99% sure that I’d have to bond multiple T1’s, or get a fractional DS3 if I wanted the higher speed.

    I’ve also noticed that if you get into MPLS, that some providers have integrated ethernet / digital circuit MPLS and others don’t. I can’t remember who I talked to, maybe Qwest, but they actually have MPLS networks for ethernet and for digital circuit, but you can’t get back and forth between the two. It didn’t make any sense to me.


    Thanks for the comment! Very informative. I don’t have a lot of experience in bandwidth above 1.5Mb, just because we’re too cheap to afford it ;-) Closest was my 3Mb link, and that went away when the office moved.

    Thanks again!

  • Anonymous

    Just a couple of thoughts from a telco person who is now a system/network admin.

    T1 circuits (or DS-1 circuits
    The cost of this type of reliability is much higher than broadband, usually totaling between $450 and $800, depending on your location.

    As you noted later in your post it is based on mileage. That is where you get bitten.

    I’ve been in this situation, and it’s very frustrating. I don’t recommend using a reseller unless it’s the only way you can afford the circuit.

    Yes, personally I don’t recommend going through a reseller. As the circuit pass though multiple carriers SLA’s start to add up in time (in general)

    I’ve seen it from next to nothing ($100 on the same floor of a co-location) to $600 (or more).

    Actually for $100 bucks going through floors; you are just getting a cable. Your equipment is doing the work on both sides. I have seen that on more than on one occasion; via collocation companies.

    Nice article, but what’s the next step? What happens when one T1 is not enough? Do you get multiple T1 lines or go straight for a T3?

    Depends; there is a break even point on a DS3 and T1’s. Typically 3 or 4 T1’s will break even on the DS3. You have too look into the cost for each t1 and compare the price of the ds3. DON’T FORGET: THERE ARE NRC CHARGES for DS3’s; also you have to have your site prepared for the system install. DS3 are carried over optical networks and dropped of electrically. Basciall I am talking about sonet.


    Ok, my quick ascii representation of a ring. :-) Well to be blunt DS3’s don’t have to be carried over sonet; they can be delievered over some old technology (async boxes) but I wont go into that. Sonet is the preferred method.

    One thing I ran into is whether or not the carrier maintains the house wiring

    Depends on the building; cable rights in buildings are HUGE bussiness. Property management companies got the idea of making money off the teleco’s and cabling. Old days; building management did anything and every thing to get the telco’s to put in ds1’s and ds3’s into buildings so as to attract potential clients to the building. Now that the telecos are there; they charge them and arm and a leg to more cable into the the buildings and in between floors. I have seen building management RIP OUT ELEVATORS to run more cable. Why? Because it was that profitable.

    DISCLAIMER: former professional affiliations: Ameritech, SBC, AT&T, MCI, WorldCom. Yes, I worked for all these companies at different times (prior to the mergers and borg like attitudes). Ok, the borg attitudes existed when it was ma bell.

    Damn I am feeling old now.

  • Clif

    This was pretty spot-on. I manage ~30 T1 Lines for remote locations, plus the 3 T1’s we have bonded here at our corporate location.

    Managed circuits vs. Unmanaged circuits: IMO save the cash and go with unmanaged, the support isn’t worth it’s weight in salt as we know about down circuits before we get notified by the MIS department, so we call in anyways to get the ball rolling on “intrusive testing.”

    Solid entry though. Thanks again.